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Purpose: To evaluate outcome of prostatic artery chemoembolization for patients with prostate cancer (PCa).
Materials and Methods: This single-center prospective cohort study was conducted between August 2013 and July 2016 in 20 patients with PCa who underwent chemoembolization. Mean patient age was 67.5 years ± 6.4. Gleason score was 6–10, and staging was T2N0M0. Fifteen patients refused prostatectomy and 5 wanted to stop hormonal therapy because of side effects. For chemoembolization, Chelidonium majus mother tincture 1 mL was slowly injected into the prostatic arteries. Docetaxel 1 mL and 150–300 μm Embosphere (Merit Medical Systems, Inc, South Jordan, Utah) microspheres 0.5 mL were thoroughly mixed, and the mixture was slowly injected by the same route. Embolization of prostatic arteries was finished with 150–300 μm Embosphere microspheres. Technical success was defined as bilateral prostatic artery embolization. Biochemical failure was defined as prostate specific antigen (PSA) decrease to < 2 ng/mL followed by recurrence when PSA increased to > 2 ng/mL within 1 month after success.
Results: Technical success was 80.0% (16/20 patients). Biochemical failure was 18.7% (3/16 patients). There was 1 short-term biochemical recurrence at 4 months and 2 midterm recurrences (12–18 months). Biochemical success at 12–18 months was 62.5% (10/16 patients). Adverse events (31.3%) included a small area (2 cm2) of bladder wall ischemia, which was removed by surgery (n ¼ 1); transient acute urinary retention (n ¼ 1) and urinary urgency (n ¼ 1) for 1 week; sexual dysfunction (n ¼ 2), which completely recovered
after 10 and 12 months, respectively.
Conclusions: Prostatic artery chemoembolization allowed a biochemical response in patients with localized PCa and is a promising treatment.